Basic knowledge of Washington Treaty

Convention on International Trade in the Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (Concerning the Precautionary Measures of a Severely Harmful Pleasure in British English, UK: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Faunaand Flora)

It is a treaty that regulates international transactions of rare wild animals and plants.
Taking the name of the city in which the treaty was adopted, it is also called the CITES (Cites) taking the Washington Convention (UK: Washington Convention) or the English initialization.
The law number is Treaty No. 25 of 1978.


Overview[Edit]

It is a treaty that aims to regulate transactions so that international trade in wild animals and plants will result in overfishing and the survival of species will not be threatened.Cooperation between the exporting country and the importing country protects these animals and plants by regulating the international trade of endangered wild animals and plants (there is no restriction on domestic movement).We classified wild species of endangered species of animals and plants into 3 ranks according to scarcity and listed them in Annex I, II and III of the Convention separately and total about 30,000 species of animals subject to trade restriction.

Wild animals and plants that are threatened with extinction are sometimes called "red data animals" under the name of English, but the species registered in the Annex List of Washington Treaty are classified according to international organizations and country of origin so-called "red It does not necessarily coincide with the species registered in the data book ". This is because the Convention itself is not directly related to the International Conservation Union for Nature Conservation (IUCN) which has created and published the red list, and conservation of the species of living threatened with the survival of the species by international trade as an economic activity to the last This is because the creatures of international trade as economic organisms are selected as creatures that are likely to endanger the species. Therefore, whatever extinction is concerned, organisms that can not be subject to economic international transactions are not subject to this Convention. In addition, international treaties are restricted not only by organisms of animals and plants but also parts of living organisms such as corpses, stuffed furs, furs, bones, fangs, horns, leaves, roots, and their products, which are subject to international treaties.

Background[Edit]

At the United Nations Conference on Human Environment in 1972, the conference organized by a suitable government or government organization was convened as soon as possible in order to prepare and adopt the draft convention on the export, import and transport of wild animals and plants of a specific species"To be recommended" was recommended.

In response to this, the US government and the International Conservation Union for Nature Conservation (IUCN) have centered on promoting the treaty preparation for regulating international trade in wild animals and plants.It was adopted by Washington D.C. in the United States on March 3, 1973 and it came into force on July 1, 1975 when the signatory countries became 10 countries.As of March 2008, there are 172 parties.Japan became a Party on November 4, 1980.

Annex I to III[Edit]

Annex I lists species that are threatened with extinction and that are affected by the transaction.For this reason international transactions for the commercial purpose of the species listed in Annex I are totally prohibited.However, transactions for academic research purposes (exhibition, research, breeding mainly at zoos and universities etc.) are possible (export permit / import permit is necessary).About 900 species.
Annex II is not necessarily an endangered species, but is listed to limit use that threatens the survival of that species.Therefore, at the time of commerce transaction of the species listed in Annex II, the export license of the exporting country (that the transaction does not threaten the survival of the species and that the individual is captured legitimatelyIt is necessary to recognize).
Annex III states that each Party treaty party is seeking cooperation on the prohibition of international transactions for commercial purposes by other Contracting Parties in the case that it is less likely to be extinct worldwide but needs protection in that country.In the cases listed in Annex III, export licenses of exporting countries or certificates of origin (certificates other than those seeking cooperation in Annex III) etc are required.

Regarding the above-mentioned animals, especially concerning appearances in apes TV programs (often animal variety program) such as gorillas and chimpanzees belonging to Annex I belonging to Annex I and having permission to import and export for breeding and research purposes, the zoologistThere are many cases where problems are raised on suspicion of commercial purpose.

penalties [Edit]

As there is no penalty provision in the Convention itself, each Member State independently implements legislation for the operation of the Convention. In Japan the law concerning the preservation of species of endangered species of wild animals and plants (species preservation law) corresponds to this.

Regarding violation of conventions, a standing committee has been established under the Conference of the Parties as described below, which commits trade sanctions against countries that have violated the treaty in accordance with various resolutions adopted at the meeting of the Conference of the Parties It has authority to recommend to the national government. When the trade sanctions recommendation measures of the committee are carried out, the vast majority of countries that were deemed to be in violation of the treaty take corrective action in response to the recommendation of the committee and present one solution to the problem of implementation of the environmental treaty It is claimed that it is [2].

Conference of the Parties[Edit]

According to Article 11, the Conference of the Parties is supposed to be held once every two years, but in reality it has been three years. The 8 th Conference of the Parties to the country in 1992 was held in Japan. The rejection of the Thai bluefin tuna proposal at the 15th Conference of the Parties held in Qatar on 13 to 25 March 2010 was largely reported in Japan [3].

List of host year and host country
times year country times year country
1ST 1976年 Switzerland 9TH 1994年 States of America
2ND 1979年 Costa Rica 10TH 1997年 Zimbabwe
3RD 1981年 India 11TH 2000年 Kenya
4TH 1983年 Botswana 12TH 2002年 Chile </a>
5TH 1985年 Argentina 13TH 2004年 Thailand
6TH 1987年 Canada 14TH 2007年 Netherlands
7TH 1989年 Switzerland 15TH 2010年 Qatar
8TH 1992年 Japan 16TH 2013年 Thailand

Footnote[Edit]

  1. ^ pdf Traites internationaux pour lesquels la Suisse assume les fonctions de depositaire: Convention sur le commerce international des especes de faune et de flore sauvages menacees d'extinction” (French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. July 20, 2011
  2. ^ Rosalind Reeve, Policing International Trade in Endangered Species: The CITES Treaty and Compliance (London: Earthcan, 2002)
  3. ^ Tomoyuki Satoshi, cooperation / press laboratory (2010年3月31日).
    "Economy · current news & Analysis 【162rd times】 Is the future of" Doha's tragedy "of the fisheries market coming?Reason why the tuna riot is not ended even in embargo veto. "Diamond · Online. Diamond company
                            Archive from the original as of April 4, 2010.Viewing on May 16, 2013.

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